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Battery FAQ In General
1. How are batteries rated? (What Are Volts and Amps?) 
There are two ratings on every battery: volts and amp-hours (AH). The AH rating may also be given as milliamp-hours (mAH), which are one-thousandth ofan amp-hour (for example, 1AH is 1000mAH). The voltage of the new battery should always match the voltage of your original unless the batteries are different chemistries (NiMH and Li-Ion batteries have different voltage ratings, even if they’re for the same laptop). Some Hi-Capacity batteries will have higher amp-hour ratings than the original battery found in the device. This is indicative of a longer run-time (higher capacity) and will not cause any incompatibilities.

2. How can batteries be connected?
Batteries may be connected in series. The positive terminal of the first battery is connected to the negative terminal of the second battery; the positiveterminal of the second is connected to the negative of the third, and so on. The voltage of the assembled battery is the sum of the individualbatteries.The batteries are connected: + to - to + to - to + to -, etc. The capacity of the battery is unchanged.
Batteries may also be connected in parallel. The positive terminal of the first battery is connected to the positive terminal of the second battery, the positiveterminal of the second is connected to the positive of the third; the negative terminal of the first battery is connected to the negative terminal of thesecond battery, the negative terminal of the second is connected to the negative of the third and so on. The batteries are connected: + to + to + and - to - to-. In this configuration, the capacity is the sum of the individual batteries and voltage is unchanged.
For example, (5) 6V 10AH batteries connected in series produces a battery array that is 30 Volts and 10AH. Connecting the batteries in parallel produces abattery array that is 6 Volts and 50AH. Ordinary auto batteries are designed in the same fashion. Six 2-volt cells are arranged in series to produce a 12vbattery. Many NiCad batteries are arranged in the same way Note: When interconnecting batteries (cells), they must be identical in voltage and amprating!

3. Do batteries self-discharge when not in use?
All batteries, regardless of their chemistry, self-discharge. The rate of self-discharge depends both on the type of battery and the storage temperature thebatteries are exposed to. There is very little self-discharge in the solid electrolyte system, but it is very notable in the liquid electrolyte system. It is alsoinfluenced by the surrounding temperature. Summer can have more influence over it than winter .In the case of primary battery, the rate of selfdischarged are followed below:
Manganese battery : 10%/year
Alkaline battery : 5%/year
Lithium battery : 1%/year
The self-discharge rates of second battery are higher than those of primary battery. Particularly, the performances of second batteries are differentdepending on battery makers. It is because they form artificial, chemical structure in order to make it possible to use the battery many times. Withthis reason, there are differences of performance depending upon the battery makers although the variations are not big. Here are some examplesbased on second batteries.
Ni-MH cell : 5 ~ 10%/month
Ni-Cd cell : 25 ~ 30%/month
Li-ion battery : 2%/month
Lead-acid Battery :
Pb-Sb alloy group : 25 ~ 30%/month
Pb-Ca alloy group : 2%/month
4. What are the different types of rechargeable battery chemistries & technologies?
Batteries in portable consumer devices (laptops and notebooks, camcorders, cellular phones, etc.) are principally made using either Nickel Cadmium(NiCad), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) or LithiumIon (Li-Ion) technologies. Each type of rechargeable battery technology has its own unique characteristics.

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